Short-haired cats outnumber their fluffy compatriots in the number of species. They stand closer to the wild, in which you will not meet feline predators with long fur. Many people prefer to keep short-haired animals because of the ease of care. In addition, they are beautiful, their abundance allows you to choose a breed for every taste.
The history of the appearance of short-haired cats takes us into the depths of time, 60 million years ago, to miacids, the progenitors of all predators on Earth, including cats. Over time, the weight of the animal became smaller, and about nine million years ago, animals appeared that were somewhat similar to modern cats.
Ten thousand years ago, the genotype of the Nubian cat (Libyan bulana) was distinguished, to which felinologists attribute kinship with modern types of domestic cats.
Today, cat breeds are classified as short-haired, the pile of which does not exceed 4.5 cm in length. If we compare wool with human hair, it has a more complex composition. The follicles of the animal contain two types of pile at once: the outer one, which makes up the fur cover, and downy (undercoat). The awn (integumentary) can have different lengths, thicknesses and stiffness. The thickest and longest fibers are called guides.
From one follicle, an outer hair may come out, surrounded by a whole bunch of fluff. It always lies on top, covering the fluff, thereby saving the animal from frost and precipitation.
The density of the undercoat and guard hairs depends on the climatic conditions in which the felines live. In northern animals, the fur is much thicker and warmer, with a lot of down. In the south live cats with short and tight hair. Breeding animals have brought confusion into the natural regularity. To date, there are species that do not have an undercoat at all (Burmese), or even wool (Don Sphynx).
Rex, contrary to the straight outer coat created by nature, are endowed with a wavy mutation. And the type of fur “brush” (some sphinxes have it) looks like a hard twisted wire.
It is difficult to say how many short-haired cat breeds live on the planet. Each felinological organization has its own views and standards on this matter. The WCF Association of 70 breeds considers 44 species to be shorthaired, including sphinxes.
According to the type of wool, thoroughbred short-haired animals can be divided into three types.
- Smooth-haired. They have a short, tight coat. This type of cat needs the least care of the skin, it is enough to comb it once a week. For a beautiful shine, you can use a special conditioner.
- Curly. Rex is one of them. The wool is complex, bathing such pets should be a last resort, since it is impossible to comb the wool after water procedures, it is too tangled. As a care, it is better to wipe them with a suede cloth.
- Plush. Breeds can serve as an example of this type of wool: British shorthair, Scottish fold, exotic. They have a short, thick, very pleasant to the touch coat. It is worth combing them once or twice a week, using a silicone glove.
Considering the breeds on a territorial basis, they can be divided into three main groups: European, Eastern and American.
- European. These include breeds such as British, Manx, Blue Russian, Scottish, European Shorthair. Most often, these are large, stocky animals, with wide cheekbones and a heavy gait.
- Oriental. As opposed to European, oriental cats are light, graceful, elegant. They have a lean body, long legs and neck, a triangular head devoid of cheeks, huge ears and a long thin tail. This group includes Siamese and Oriental cats, as well as African beauties – the Abyssinian cat and the Egyptian Mau.
- American. These animals are considered descendants of European cats, brought to the American continents after their discovery. There are a lot of such breeds, the most popular are exotic, Bengal, Bombay.
The variety of cat species makes it difficult to choose a short-haired pet. To make it easier, we present the most popular breeds of these animals.
Named after the ancient country of Abyssinia (now Ethiopia). The ancestors of these animals once lived on the territory of ancient Egypt and were considered sacred. Abyssinians are graceful, muscular cats with a beautiful curve of the neck. These are very smart and temperamental pets, they love people, but they also value their independence.
Get along well with other animals.
Powerful animals with rounded paws. Their ancestors arrived in America with the first European settlers, but as a breed, this type of cat developed relatively recently – in the middle of the last century. American cats are good-natured, devoted, although independent. They get along well with children and other animals.
They have a lightning fast reaction, which makes them the best hunters among domestic cats.
The cat was bred for those who love wild animals. In the sixties of the last century, the Asiatic leopard was brought to America. His offspring, produced from a domestic cat, became the basis of the breed. Breeders worked for many years, but they managed to create a kind and affectionate animal with the appearance of a wild leopard.
Today it is one of the most expensive and rare breeds.
The best British yard cats were taken as the basis for the creation of a plush cat, so nature has worked more in the formation of this breed than breeders. The result was a good-natured big man with a phlegmatic character, but, like a true Englishman, imposing, mannered and with a sense of tact.
In the first half of the last century, several cats were brought to the United States from Burma. They were crossed with the Siamese, resulting in an amazingly beautiful chocolate-brown cat with a round muzzle and a pillow nose. Today, Burmese have other types of color.
These animals are good-natured, affectionate and dog-like devoted to man; from separation from him, they can yearn and die.
When creating this breed, breeders tried to get an Indian mini-panther with the affectionate disposition of a domestic cat. Burmese and black American Shorthairs participated in the selection. It turned out to be a beautiful black creature with a shiny coat. The character was inherited from a devoted, contact and loving Burmese cat.
In 1960, a wavy-haired kitten was found in a litter of a domestic cat in England, and his offspring gave rise to the curly-haired kitten breed. Representatives of the breed have a plastic body, a triangular muzzle and huge protruding ears. Cats follow their owner everywhere, they like to be in the center of events, they never get bored. A fountain of energy and attachment to people make communication with them unforgettable.
This direction of cats was created by nature, breeders interfered little in the formation of the species. Not far from the wild world, the animal retained good immunity and hunting skills. In Russia, the breed did not become popular, as it looked like our street cats.
Animals are kind, harmless, contact, but unobtrusive, they can entertain themselves.
A cat with a luxurious spotted smoky color, similar to ancient Egyptian images, belongs to ancient breeds. She is distrustful, withdrawn, but devoted to her family. These are incredibly energetic animals, good hunters. They dislike outsiders and jealously guard their toys. You can bathe them if this is done from childhood, the cat takes water procedures with pleasure.
A curly-haired kitten was born to a smooth-haired cat in England, which became the progenitor of the breed. Animals are intelligent, affectionate to their owners, active, love to play with young children. Cats do not mark territory, unlike other breeds.
Cats are very responsible mothers, raising their kittens for a long time and tenderly.
A very unusual cat breed, with tiny feet on a standard body. This makes them look like dachshunds. In 1983, Sandra Hochenedel (USA) found a short-legged pregnant cat. Most of the kittens born have inherited the gene for short legs from their mother. Munchkins came to Russia in 2001 and have established themselves as sociable, friendly, playful pets.
The animal has no tail. But some representatives of this breed have a small “stump”, occasionally there are individuals with a full tail. The cats were named Manx after the Isle of Man off the coast of Great Britain, where their breed originated. Pets can be kept by families with small children or other animals.
They are sociable, playful and curious.
At the end of the 19th century, they tried to classify the oriental monochromatic beauty as a variety of Siamese cats, but the color did not match too much. American breeders in the middle of the last century registered Orientals as an independent breed. Friendly, talkative and very affectionate cat is very popular in Europe and America.
Cats are so called because of their resemblance to the wild predator ocelot: they have the same expressive spotted pattern on the skin. Despite the resemblance to a wild animal, the pet has a mild character, a cheerful, playful disposition, she is sociable and devoted, her habits are more like a dog.
The cat looks like a lynx: the same spotted, with tassels on the ears and a piece of tail instead of a whole. Pixibobs were bred in America in the 80s of the last century. These are trusting gentle animals that consider the family to be their flock. They are smart, understand human speech and always come to the call.
These cats came to Europe from the Arkhangelsk province. Many liked the bluish delicate coat of an animal with a silvery sheen. The character of the cat is tactful, obedient and soft, but she does not like tenderness, does not allow herself to be stroked, and is wary of strangers.
In ancient times, on the territory of Siam (now Thailand), cats were kept at the court of rulers. They were the companions of princes and princesses who were not allowed to play with other children. A couple of pets were presented to the English royal family in the 19th century, they became the progenitors of all European cats.
These are very smart animals with an interesting multifaceted character.
Refers to the smallest cats. They were brought to Europe in the 70s of the last century from Singapore. The breed originated naturally. Today it is rare and rare. Animals are loving, but unobtrusive, with great energy potential, they are always on the move, get along well with children and other animals.
The breed is obtained by crossing Siamese cats with the American Shorthair species. They borrowed color from the Siamese, and a large physique from the American breed. The cat is smart, trainable, and performs commands well.
She belongs to affectionate, affectionate breeds, does not tolerate loneliness, constantly follows a person.
Due to the color similar to the Siamese cat, these breeds are often confused. But the Thais do not have such refinement and grace as the Siamese. These are intelligent animals with a canine mind and habits.
They are very talkative, ready to purr and meow all day, love to play and perform various tricks.
This cat looks like a miniature tiger, but her character is completely tame. The breed is young, it was bred at the end of the last century. A more good-natured creature is hard to find, a cat gets along with everyone from children to a small bird if it lives in the owner’s family.
A very young breed, bred in our century. It is a hairless lop-eared cat, with a graceful body, long and flexible limbs. This is a faithful and devoted friend, if someone is sick, the left will not leave the household for a minute.
Cats love to run, but they can also walk on a leash.
The breed was bred by the French, they consider it their calling card. These are very large animals with beautiful amber eyes and soft wool with a blue tint. Cats are balanced, adequate, but prefer loneliness to noisy companies. In the Chartreuse family, he chooses his own master and obeys only him.
Small ears, pressed against a round muzzle, look very touching. Not all kittens have drooping ears with age, those that don’t are called Scottish Straights. Pets are the most calm and phlegmatic cats in the world. They get along with everyone, but do not like to sit on their hands and prefer their own space.
Exotic shorthair (exotic)
In the sixties of the last century in America, a Persian and an American Shorthair cat were crossed – a cute plush animal with a snub nose turned out. Because of their cartoonish appearance, Exotics have become a favorite breed around the world.
They are kind, mobile, patient, cannot stand loneliness, but they do not impose themselves if the owner is busy.
How to choose?
The choice of animals depends on the preferences of their owners. In addition to short hair, there are many more criteria by which cats are chosen: some love affectionate, while others prefer independent ones, someone needs a calm one, and someone needs a playful one. To facilitate the choice, we will analyze the breeds of cats according to various features.
There are breeds of cats that not only impose their society on their owners, but also love to “talk”. They will purr and meow for any reason, trying their best to say something in their own language. Talkative breeds include Burmese, Siamese, Thai, Oriental cats, as well as Don and Canadian Sphynxes. These are very affectionate, loyal and sociable animals. People who spend all their time at work should not choose such breeds.
Sociable animals are suitable for single people, pensioners, housewives or middle-aged and older children, as these cats are intellectuals and love to play.
Some people prefer silence, especially after a busy day at work. They will be tired of the talkative sphinx, literally pursuing the owner everywhere. In this case, silent breeds should be chosen. These include: cornish rex, american shorthair, exotic.
If there are older children in the house who need playmates, you should choose mobile, playful animals. You can play hide and seek with them, run a race. Or throw the ball and ask for it. They can be trained and taught many tricks. Whoever is touched by the pet’s swift temperament should choose the following breeds: ocicat, bengal, siamese or abyssinian cat, egyptian mau.
Cats of these breeds will suit the owners with a good repair, because they will not rush around the house and destroy everything around. They are ideal for people with a weak nervous system, as they will not annoy them with their obsession and activity. A well-fed and peacefully sleeping cat can always be woken up and stroked if an antidepressant is needed. Bedbugs include: exotic, british and russian blue cat.
There are breeds of cats that literally beg for affection from their owners. They rub against their legs, jump on their hands, climb into the face to “kiss”, hug their neck with their paws. Such “Velcro” will suit people with a great unspent potential of love and tenderness – communicating with each other, everyone will get their portion of pleasure. Affectionate character endowed with: Don Sphynx, Manx, Burmese.
Grown up children and young people most often choose intelligent breeds of cats that are easy to train, with which they can play and communicate. They are always interesting and fun. Smart cats include: Siamese, Oriental, American Bobtail, Munchkin, Burmese.
Such animals are suitable for those who cannot get a dog, but want to communicate with a smart animal.
For those who are rarely at home
Some cat lovers, due to their employment, stay away from home all day, but they cannot completely refuse to communicate with cats. Such people should choose calm and at the same time independent animals that will not suffer from lack of attention, but will always be able to entertain themselves. Suitable for workaholics: Scottish, British, blue Russian cat, Egyptian Mau and Munchkins.
Good-natured breeds for children
For children, especially younger ones, you should choose an animal with a peaceful character that will not “give back” even if the baby pulls its tail. These should be patient cats who enjoy interacting with children. In this case, it is better to pay attention to the following breeds: manx, exotic.
Such animals are suitable for lonely people who lack attention and communication. Animals of this type literally live with the problems of the owner: they rest together, do the cleaning, do household chores and sleep. Cats do not leave people for a minute. “Velcro” refers to Burmese, Thai, Bengal cats, Devon Rex, Japanese Bobtail.
These breeds of cats are suitable for people living in private homes, as they are endowed with a strong hunting instinct, they are excellent at catching mice and are independent enough to visit the yard, the street and return home. For private sector owners: Turkish Van, Blue Russian, Manx, American Shorthair.
If there are already pets in the house
There are dogs, birds, guinea pigs, turtles in the house, but no cat. Fans of home “zoos” are worried about what kind of cat can be brought into the house without a “scandal” with the rest of the animals. In this case, you should choose good-natured, sociable, accommodating representatives of the breeds. These include: Japanese and American Bobtail, Thai and Bombay cats, Peterbalds.
For those who want to express themselves, enjoy the delight of guests about an unusual pet, you need to pay attention to the breeds: Peterbald, Devon Rex, Cornish Rex, Munchkin.
Cats resembling wild breeds
These cats are suitable for wildlife lovers who cannot afford to bring a panther or leopard into the house. Cats of some breeds will remind them of the wild. In this case, you should look at Ocicat, Savannah, Bengal and Bombay breed.
When choosing a pet, you need to take into account not only the desires of the owner, but also the environment in which the animal will live, whether the family is suitable for a particular breed.
Nuances of care
If a cat with long hair settles in the family, there will be a lot of care for both her and the apartment. In this regard, it is easier with short-haired animals, but they shed no less than their counterparts – just the hairs are shorter. In the wild, animals molt twice: in preparation for winter and for summer. In domestic cats, due to a comfortable constant temperature, the “deceived” body fails, sluggish molting occurs throughout the year.
Diseases, stress, old age, poor nutrition can affect the active shedding of an animal’s hair. The appearance of a large amount of fluff in a house with a young cat should be an alarm signal for the owner. You should check the physical or psychological state of health of the pet.
A short-haired cat will also have to be combed out, only less often, about once a week. There are a number of reasons why you should do this.
- Hair licked by a cat can clump in the intestines, interfering with the digestive process. If you do not help to get rid of dying hair in a timely manner, the animal will have to be given a gel for their resorption.
- The brush perfectly massages the skin, improving their blood supply, and hence the quality of the coat.
- Many cats love the combing procedure, at this moment a special emotional contact arises between the owner and the animal.
You can remove hair from an animal using special combs, brushes or a silicone glove with teeth purchased at a pet store. To do this, carefully brush the brush two or three times from the scruff of the pet to the tail, and then do the same movements in the opposite direction. Having finished working with the back, you need to carefully comb the sides and stomach.
Despite the cat’s indignation, it is still necessary to walk with a rubber brush along the tail of the animal.
Washing a short-haired cat should be a last resort. But it is necessary to take care of the ears, eyes and paw pads from time to time. This is done with cotton swabs, swabs soaked in boiled water, a weak solution of manganese or a decoction of herbs.
The owner is also responsible for the health of the animal. It is necessary to periodically show the cat to the veterinarian for preventive purposes, follow the vaccination card. Once every three months, give your pet tablets for worms, even if he is not on the street.
Many cats are unpretentious in food, they eat everything that they are given. But the right balanced diet will help keep the animal healthy for many years.
Shorthair cats are just as beautiful, smart and talented as all cats in the world, just a little less worries with their hair.
On the features of short-haired cat breeds, see the following video.